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Pepper - a culture, though whimsical, but popular. In the garden it is grown on a par with tomatoes and cucumbers. The ripening period of this plant is long - about 110-140 days, so not seeds, but ready seedlings are planted in the open ground.
Both the Bulgarian and the bitter peppers are quite whimsical, therefore it is necessary to constantly maintain the optimum temperature, not to overdo it with watering, and to regularly fertilize young shoots.
Selection of seed
Caring for the future harvest begins with the purchase of the right seeds. Some gardeners are guided by the principle: “It looks beautiful in the picture,” and they are mistaken. You need to carefully study the information on the packaging:
- In which regions of high germination and good harvest;
- Early ripening varieties in open ground can be planted in early May,and in the greenhouse - from mid-April;
- It is good if the pepper is capable of forming fruits in regions with a dry climate and adverse conditions;
- Well, when the proposed variety is pretreated, inoculating immunity against apical rot;
- Plants with small peppercorns do not have to tie;
- Shrubs with large fruits (from 100 g and more) need additional support, otherwise they will break under the weight of the crop;
- It is recommended to buy at least two varieties: early and late. The first will arrive in the beginning of summer, and it can be used for the preservation and preparation of fresh salads. The second will ripen when the early pepper is over, so even in the autumn there will be fresh vegetables in the house.
Seeds from sachets or personal supplies need to sort. Pour out onto a clean sheet of paper, and sort out weak, darkened, or deformed specimens. Throw away the defective seed, put the residue on the bottom of a 1-liter jar, and pour 30 ml of salt on 1 liter of liquid. Vigorously bash, insist 7 minutes. Empty and lifeless seeds, unable to sprout, float to the surface.Drain the solution with pepper shells, wash the residue with plain water, and dry. Precisely from them strong and hardy seedlings will turn out.
Planted planting material in the ground need in early February. At the first stage it is necessary to decontaminate the seeds. You can use fungicides:
- potassium permanganate (the solution should turn dark pink, or even purple);
- 1% potassium permanganate;
- borax: 0.2 g of substance per liter of fluid.
Place the seeds in a fabric bag or gauze, immerse in the solution for 20–40 minutes, then carefully wash off the residue.
You can disinfect the pepper using the vegetable method. It will take 1–2 leaves of a three-year-old aloe, which they put in the fridge for 7 days. Grind the billet, squeeze the juice, and dilute it with water in a ratio of 1 to 1. In such a disinfectant composition, seeds can lie hours 8–12.
The disinfected seeds are put on a damp cloth, folded in two layers, and covered with a second wet piece on top. The pepper has a dense shell, so the shoots appear on the 8-14 day. To speed up the process, before soaking the planting material can be immersed in the saltpeter solution for 5 minutes, or 5% chlorine bleach can be added to the water.
A seed dish can be placed next to the battery, but care must be taken to ensure that the rags do not dry out. The optimum temperature for sprouting pepper is 25–30 degrees Celsius.
Tip: Water for soaking must be defended for several days to get rid of bleach and heavy metals. You can skip the liquid through a carbon filter. Pour in a saucer only warmed water, or warm willow tea.
Liquid should not be much. Wet rag and high temperature are ideal conditions for sprouting. A lot of water and +25 - a great option for the appearance of rot and fungus.
Immediately before planting, seeds are recommended to be soaked in nutrient solutions. Suitable "Uniflor-bud", "Zircon" or "Narcissus". Wood ash can be used instead of chemicals: 1 liter of liquid per 30 g of dry ingredient. Insist day, constantly stirring. Immerse the seeds in the prepared liquid for 12 hours, and then immediately plant in wet soil. In dry ground pepper can not climb.
Soil recipes for sturdy seedlings
Start preparing the ground for the landing of pepper is recommended in late January - the first of February, so he had time to insist.Black soil from the garden can be used as a basis; it cannot be taken from the plots on which the nightshade were planted the previous year. The second option is peat. To make the base loose, add humus or rotted compost plus river sand. Two parts of the first and second component and 1 - the third.
The resulting mixture in a double boiler hold for at least an hour to destroy a possible infection and fungus. If not, at least pour boiling water over it.
In order not to waste time on preparing the soil, you can buy in the stores a special soil intended for growing peppers or peat tablets. Manufacturers carry out disinfection of the material, so garden owners do not need to pour boiling water over the soil.
Tip: To keep moisture in the soil longer, you can buy balls with hydrogel. First, they are soaked in warm water, and then put in black soil.
Tanks for growing seedlings
Pepper does not tolerate a pick, it is better not to plant seeds in a common box. The best option - peat cups or tablets. You can grow seedlings in cut milk and cream bags, plastic bottles. Suitable disposable cups.At the bottom of the tank there must be one or more openings for the root system to breathe.
In order not to injure the pepper during planting in open ground, it is recommended to make compact pots.
It will take:
- thick film, which is used for the construction of greenhouses;
- ordinary plastic bags;
- stationery gum, which bind the bills;
- You can use a ruler and a pencil;
- Beginners are recommended to arm themselves with a can of peas.
- The film is cut into small rectangles, the size of a tetrad sheet.
- Collapse in the shape of a cylinder. It will be easier if you wrap a tin can with a film.
- Secure the shape with rubber bands.
- Inside the plastic bags, which perform the function of the bottom.
Any container designed for growing peppers, put on a tray, covered with a large package, suitable garbage. At the very bottom of the pot pour a layer of drainage: sunflower husk, coarse sand, small pebbles or expanded clay. Some summer residents fill containers with foam grated on a coarse grater.
Pour the prepared base into the pots, and ram it a little. The sides should protrude 1.5–2 cm above the ground. In the center of the ground make a recess with your finger or stick. Pour some water with the addition of Narcissus (3 g per 1 liter of liquid), Zircon (4 drops per 150 ml). You can treat the ground with a solution of potassium permanganate for additional disinfection, or potassium permanganate. Water should be warm.
Caution fragile material
- Germinated seeds are taken with tweezers, or “prick” into a wet match.
- Immerse in the prepared holes for 1-2 pieces.
- It is better to put 2 seeds in the pot so that the seedlings are guaranteed to appear.
- Sprinkle the grooves with earth. Approximate layer thickness is 1.5 cm.
- Soil lightly tamp, but not much, otherwise the pepper will be difficult to slip.
- Cover with plastic bag or piece of film.
Important: Some gardeners believe that to accelerate the growth of seedlings pepper needs carbon dioxide. In such cases, pots of seeds are placed on the bottom of a large bag, exhaled several times inwards, and are tightly tied.
Place the container with the future seedlings in a warm place, away from drafts.The temperature in the room where the pepper pecks should not fall below the level of + 25-30 degrees. When the first weak shoots appear (6–9 days), rearrange the pots in a box or bowl with high sides, and cover with glass. The bag must not be used so that condensation does not accumulate inside.
Put the young seedlings on well-lit window sills. Place a matchbox under glass to provide airing. If the pepper does not have enough UV light, a lamp is placed next to the pots (at a distance of 50 cm). You can buy a special variety, or use the usual desktop.
The peeped pepper needs light. The temperature in the room during the daytime can vary in the range of 23–19 heat. At night, the thermometer mark should not fall below +16. You can not water the pepper until they form these sheets, at least 2 pieces.
If the earth dries up, it can be sprayed. Moisture should not accumulate on the leaves or at the roots of the seedlings, otherwise a fungus, such as a “black leg,” will appear, and all damaged specimens will have to be thrown away.
Watering begins after the appearance of the third sheet.Moisturize the soil every 3-4 days. The leaves in a strong and healthy seedlings have a dark green shade. If the plants are light green, and seem to be frail, superphosphate can be added to water (10 liters - 30 g) with urea and potassium sulfate (10 g each). A liter of solution is enough for 10–12 bushes. After fertilizing with such components, the soil is watered with clean water to protect the roots from burns.
Alternative - the drug "Effect", ammonium nitrate or bird droppings. The latter is diluted in hot water at the rate of 50 g per 1 liter of liquid. Do not insist, but immediately pour it into the ground so that the room does not have a characteristic smell.
If both seeds planted in pots, ascended, will have to leave only one bush. Wait until the pepper has 2-3 leaves, and see which plant looks stronger. Cut a weak copy, leaving the root in the ground. If you try to pull it out, you can damage the foundation of the second bush.
It is recommended to temper the seedlings 2–1.5 weeks before disembarkation. To do this, it is placed on the balcony. On the first day, 1 hour is sufficient; on the following days, it can be increased to 3-5.
When it comes time to plant peppers on the beds, you need to stop watering, so that the earth is a little dried out, and the plant’s roots are covered with dense breast. Carefully remove the clod with seedlings from the pot, if these are cylinders of film, just unwrap them and insert them into the prepared black soil. At first, the pepper is covered with a film so that it adapts to the new conditions, then you need to remember about watering and fertilizer.
Observing the temperature, and protecting the seedlings from excessive moisture, you can form healthy bushes that will give a good harvest. The main thing is not to plant near bitter and sweet varieties so that they do not mix, and to protect the pepper from pests and diseases.
Video: tips on growing pepper seedlings