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Rod penochka has more than fifty species. These are tiny singing birds. At first, they were classified as Slavic clans, but then scientists decided to single them out as a separate family. All types of stumps are very similar to each other, and the differences between them are insignificant. They may differ, for example, in their feathers or in the presence of stripes in color.
Distribution and habitat of stumps
Baby sticks are most common in eastern Asia, but are also common in Africa and the entire continent of Eurasia. These little birds, though similar to their relatives - Slavs, still have a number of differences: their beak is thinner, their paws are longer and the tail is shorter. The color of the warbler is made up of yellow and green with brown. The top of these birds is darker than the abdomen.
The main diet of birds is represented by small insects.They can also eat insect larvae, and at the end of summer and autumn various berries growing in the forest appear on their menu. This bird hunts against insects, flying into the trees, in their dense foliage, and also in the air nearby. Chick must eat a day the amount of food weighing one third of its own. In the autumn, to make stocks for the winter, the bird eats even more.
Forests are the main habitat of warblers, but they also fly into thickets of shrubs. Suitable forests for these birds can be both deciduous and coniferous. The chicks are migratory — they nest and breed in the wooded regions of Eurasia, and they spend the winter in Africa, staying there in the rainforest all season.
Types of warblers
There are a lot of types of warblers, but the most common ones are:
- Broscheka penochka. This is a small bird with a body length of 11 cm. It received its name not by chance - the cheeks have a specific red color. Above the green-gray color, the abdomen is light. The paws of the bird are dark. Large populations live in Africa.
- Laura's honeycake. This species from the forests of Africa was discovered by the wife of Boulton, an ornithologist fromAmerica. Actually, he owes her that name. Laura's stump is common in Tanzania, Angola, Zambia and the Congo.
- Chiffchaff-tenkovka. Prefers mixed as well as coniferous forests throughout Eurasia. This species can be found in quite northern regions. Winter moves to the African continent, South Asia and the warm Mediterranean countries. At the length of the warbler grows up to 12 cm, and its mass is 8g. In the mating season and during the nesting period the color of the birds changes. The back becomes brownish-gray, and at the hems of the western subspecies there is also an olive tone in color. The abdomen is light with a yellowish transition on the sides and chest. The beak and legs of the chiffchaff are dark in color. Above the eyes stands a bright white stripe. In autumn, the color of birds darkens, the yellow color disappears from the chest and sides.
- Bum warbler. This is a medium-sized bird with a body length of almost 14 cm, and its wings have a span of 21 cm. It looks similar to a tenkovka, but these birds sing in different ways. The top of the calf has a green color, closer to the olive shade, the abdomen is light with a yellowish sheen. Yellow color is also present on the chest, on the throat and in the stripes near the eyes of the bird.The weight of such a scum is about 10 g. It lives in Europe, but it flies to Africa to spend the winter.
- Svetlobryuhaya penochka. Habitat - the western regions of Central Europe. Wintering place - Africa, south of the Sahara. The light-bellied chiffchaff has a body size of 11 cm in length. The bird's weight is about 8 g. Wings in scope reach 21 cm. The color characteristic of birds of this species is brown top and light tummy. It is allocated with a white brow.
- Rattle gummy The bird is widespread in Europe. There lives in areas of the taiga and temperate climatic zones. Hibernate winter rattle, like most representatives of the species, flies to Africa. The bird's body is about 12 cm long, its average weight is 12 g, and its wings are 23 cm wide. It stands out with a green back, and the chest has a characteristic yellow-white color. In the song of this stump there are popping sounds, which was the reason for such a name.
- Brown stump. The bird is 15 cm long and lives in East Asia. Feathers on the back have a dark brown shade. The beak of a chiffon is sharp, but short, the tail is slightly rounded. Paws of dark color. The bird's eye is highlighted with dark and light stripes, the outline is marked with white.The dull belly turns into a darker breast. Creamy tint at the undertail and sides of the bird.
- Thick-billed chiffchaff. The mass of the bird is about 12 g and has a size of 11 cm. The color of this stump is brown-olive. The name was due to its thick beak. Habitat - Eastern forests of Asia.
- Korolkovaya penochka. In this type of warbler, the weight is only 8 g, and the length of the body is about 11 cm. The belly has a lighter color than the back, which is colored in greenish color. There is a distinctive yellow strip on the head and light stripes on the wings of the bird. Distributed in China, South, as well as in eastern Siberia and Mongolia. Hibernating this species, unlike some others, flies to Indochina.
- Sweet strawberry. He lives in East Asia. It is a bird with wings of 15 cm in size, having a body length of about 12 cm. The weight of the strawberry warmers varies from 4 g to 9 g. The back of a green color with an olive shade, having light strips. The belly, characteristic of almost all chiffs, is white-yellow. Distinctive signs of blueberry are the beak, which has a yellow base and reddish paws.
- Chummy-Talovka. A unique feature of the bird are protruding flywheels and stripes on the wings, which are lighter than the main color. Feathers are green with a grayish tint, lighter on the tummy.The body is 12 cm long. It has a wide area of distribution - Scandinavia, Russia, Mexico, South and Central Asia, Mongolia, Korea.
- Green warbler. The back of this bird is painted green with an olive sheen. Abdomen grayish, light. Distributed in Eurasia. Eyes are highlighted with a yellow eyebrow and a dark stripe. The size of birds is 11 cm, weight is 8g. The paws are brownish, and its wingspan is around 19 cm.
- Light-headed penochka. The color is characteristic of the representatives of the genus - the back is greenish and light abdomen. The size of a light-headed chiffchaff is about 11 cm, and it weighs about 9 g. Asian countries are the favorite habitats.
In all species of these birds there are no differences between males and females, that is, there is no sexual demorphism. Young individuals and mature birds also do not have differences in appearance.
Baby sticks at home
This small and very cute bird can be kept at home. Caring for them is simple. At first, the warblers in the cage will be restless, so they should be covered with a cloth on top. They easily carry content in captivity. Within two weeks, the bird will master, and it can even be released from the cage.
Chicks are generally friendly, not aggressive, and may coexist with other species.However, it is not recommended to place several males on the same territory - competition will begin because of the female.
For the comfortable existence of the birds, sticks are placed in a cage on which they can sit, a bowl and some capacity so that they can bathe. If a couple lives in a cage, then they will organize a house. Instead of such a house, you can give the birds a building material, from which they will build a nest: grass, moss and leaves.
When it comes time, the female chiffcha lays about 7 pieces of small light eggs. She sits on eggs for two weeks, and after hatching, feeds her chicks for another two weeks.
The bird is not picky about food. In captivity, they are also fed with various small insects, including meal worms, and sometimes berries and fruits. Penoch love for their singing, which is able to please throughout the year.
- They live long enough, almost 12 years.
- Before flying to the south, the birds feed heavily, gaining weight, and their color becomes brown.
- The total number of warblers in Europe is approaching 40 million pairs.
The chiffs have very diverse voices and pleasant melodic singing. Each species has its own unique song. Chiffchaff tonykovka makes sounds that resemble drops. In addition to the characteristic cod in the song, the warbler also has a sad long whistle. Memorable iridescent trills at the green chiffchaff. Her voice is loud and bright. A very melodic and pleasant whistle publishes a spring frog. In the wild or in a cage, these little birds always delight with their singing.
Video: warbler (Phylloscopus)