The content of the article
- 1 What is it for?
- 2 Positive points
- 3 Negative points
- 4 The difference between sterilization and castration
- 5 Types of sparing operations
- 6 Basic surgical techniques
- 7 Seam care
- 8 What does the seam look like?
- 9 At what age is it best to sterilize?
- 10 How to prepare a cat for sterilization?
- 11 Postoperative care
- 12 Video: sterilization and castration of cats - the pros and cons
These soft, fluffy and tender purring lumps are a ray of happiness in every home. However, when a kitten turns into a mature individual, it begins to show interest in the opposite sex. Cats cease to be obedient, become uncontrollable, refuse to eat, and all the time requires the continuation of the kind of loud and meticulous meow.
With the possibility of free walking, 2 months later, kittens are born, owners who need to look for the owner on their own. The most humane way in this situation, which allows the pet to find a carefree state and preserve the relationship between the owner and the cat, is sterilization.
What is it for?
Sterilization or castration is the most reliable way to neutralize an animal's need for mating, which leads to the birth of often useless kittens. After going through the procedure, the pet becomes calmer and no longer requires the attention of the opposite sex. As a result of this procedure, the risks of cancer of the reproductive organs and mammary glands in cats are reduced, and the possibility of any diseases of the reproductive system disappears. The same goes for cats. As a result, the cat maintains its health and the possibility of unwanted pregnancy disappears.
- After going through the sterilization procedure, the animal loses the chance to acquire unwanted offspring. This is the most preferred operation for outbred animals whose kittens are very difficult to attach. Basically, the owners do not even bother to spend time searching for owners of kittens. Some of them are drowned immediately after birth, others are simply thrown into the street when they grow up a little, hoping for the good heart of a bystander.Cats that have reached sexual maturity are able to acquire lamb several times a year.
- Not all owners of pedigree cats are engaged in their breeding. Most of them choose a pet according to external parade signs for the soul. At the same time, they have absolutely no desire to grow kittens and search for new owners for them. In this situation, sterilization is the best solution.
- In the conditions of an apartment, where animals do not have the possibility of free walking and sexual activity, they become restless and suffer greatly. During the chutes, they eat little, lose some wool, mark the territory and obsessively meow, demanding the love of the opposite sex. Such behavior causes discomfort not only for cats, but also for owners. The sterilized cat becomes calmer, does not bother the owners with its annoying meow and does not ask to go outside.
- Animals that live in an apartment, when free-running, have the opportunity to communicate with stray animals, from communicating with whom they risk becoming infected with very complex diseases, which is often fatal.This primarily concerns viral immunodeficiency and feline viral leukemia. In addition, there are high risks of infection with infectious peritonitis. These diseases are not amenable to prevention, their diagnosis is difficult, and treatment is impossible. Therapy and diagnosis require high material costs. By sterilizing the pet, the owner prevents the risk of these diseases.
- During surgery, general anesthesia is required. The procedure involves the violation of the skin. The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall are cut. Therefore, the intervention is carried out only under anesthesia. In animals that are young, tolerable anesthesia and minimal effects. Cats whose body is weakened are at risk when anesthesia can cause disastrous consequences. Some breeds of cats have particular sensitivity to it: Maine Coon, Sphynx, Briton, Scottish Fold, as well as those that have a tendency to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.In combination with this disease, thromboembolism may occur, resulting in death. Reducing the risks is possible due to additional examination before the operation.
- Often, after sterilization, the activity of the animal is limited for some time and the appetite increases, which can lead to overweight, which is fraught with heart problems. Therefore, after the sterilization operation in cats, you should follow a certain diet and give them specialized foods that are intended for sterilized animals.
The difference between sterilization and castration
- Sterilization. For females, the procedure "sterilization of cats" refers to the operation oophorectomy - surgical removal of the ovaries. As a result of this surgical intervention, the production of sex hormones and, at the same time, leakage, is stopped. The risks of the appearance of cysts and tumor processes are reduced. This method is used in cases of young and infants and cats with a healthy uterus.
- Important! In cats that have ovariectomy, there are high risks of inflammatory processes in the uterus - endometritis and pyometra.These diseases occur in older females, when the operation is dangerous for health reasons, for the reason that they require the use of anesthesia. Therefore, most veterinarians prefer the operation of castration.
- Castration. This word is called the removal of all reproductive organs. It is carried out to cats of any age. It can be planned or urgent. Urgent operations are carried out in connection with pathologies of the uterus, dysfunctional labor (extirpation of the uterus with the presence of embryos and others). This operation helps to protect against the risks of any diseases associated with the reproductive system in the cat.
Types of sparing operations
A gentle sterilization method in which fallopian tubes are attached. In this animal the doctor keeps all the reproductive organs, estrus in the cat will happen, but there is no possibility of pregnancy. In fact, such an operation is rarely performed by representatives of the cat family, it is possible only at the urgent request of the owners.
For the reason that tubal occlusion is an insufficiently effective method, as regards the prevention of leakage with the characteristic ensuing consequences in the form of an obsessive meow.
Chemical castration method
Owners of animals who do not plan to knit a cat for a period of time, but may want to do this in the future, may resort to temporary chemical sterilization. Such methods are possible due to the implantation of capsules under the skin.
But most often, when they talk about the sterilization of cats, as a rule, we mean the operation ovariohisterectomy or ovariectomy.
Basic surgical techniques
For sterilization of cats most often use the following methods, which differ in methods of access to the uterus:
- Through the punctures of the abdominal wall with laparoscopic equipment.
- With a side cut.
- With access to the white line of the abdomen are most often.
With any methods associated with the sterilization of cats, wounds arise that require suturing. The abdominal wall is sutured using catgut or synthetic absorbable sutures.
Skin sutures are performed in two options:
- Nodal. Continuous intradermal sutures are used that do not require removal.
- Classical. It is performed with nonabsorbable silk or nylon threads.
What does the seam look like?
Skin nodal stitches are a guarantee of high reliability of fixation and tissue, which eliminates the divergence of the wound edges.
Continuous intradermal sutures are used in cases where the owner may have difficulty in visiting a veterinary medical institution for their removal or the cat has an aggressive temperament.
Suture removal takes place about a week after surgery; intradermal sutures do not need to be removed.
Conditions for the care of any skin sutures are aimed at maintaining the frequency and preventing infection of the wound. Their treatments are applied with aluminum-containing sprays, such substances reliably prevent microbes and dirt from entering the postoperative wound.
At what age is it best to sterilize?
The reproductive system of the representatives of the cat family completes its development by the age of about six months. From this period, it is theoretically possible to proceed with the planning of sterilization. However, no rush should be made. Cats aged 5 months are difficult to tolerate anesthesia, it can lead to growth retardation and development. Therefore, to sterilize an animal is better not earlier than the age of 9 months.
However, sterilization should not be postponed. For the reason that cats that have a lot of empty leaks without matings often develop diseases of the reproductive organs.
The most appropriate age for sterilization is the age from puberty to 10 years. In principle, it can be done at a later age, if no serious diseases are observed. It must be borne in mind that, the older the animal, the worse it tolerates anesthesia. It can cause exacerbation of chronic diseases and even be fatal. For this reason, older animals need additional examinations before surgery.
How to prepare a cat for sterilization?
Despite the prevalence of this procedure, it is quite a serious surgical procedure that requires great responsibility. For this reason, the owners of animals must unquestioningly follow the recommendations of the doctor. Before the procedure, a series of tests is assigned. These measures are fully justified for the reason that a proper examination will help to avoid complications.
Before the surgery, the animal is not given food 12 hours before it, as well as water for an hour or two beforehand. The fact is that the presence of water or food in the digestive tract of an animal can cause vomiting, as a result of which aspiration pneumonia can develop.
After the sterilization procedure, the cat requires special care. While under anesthesia, the body temperature decreases, so the animal must be kept in a warm place and well covered. The place where the cat is located after the operation should be on the floor, because after anesthesia she may be disturbed in coordination, which is often the cause of traumatic injuries.
- The litter, where the animal is located, must be covered with an absorbent diaper after the operation, since under the influence of anesthesia, uncontrolled urination may occur.
- You must carefully inspect the seams and make sure that they do not begin to bleed or become inflamed.
- A large number of veterinarians recommend caring for a suture using antiseptic solutions of chlorhexidine, dioxin, or lubricating it with ointments.
- Some times after surgery, antibiotics may be required. Most often, these are broad-spectrum drugs. Usually they are used in the form of injections at intervals of two days.
Recovery from sterilization in cats usually takes about a week. You can take care of your pet after the intervention yourself or leave it under the supervision of a veterinarian.
Video: sterilization and castration of cats - the pros and cons